Carpinus caroliniana - American Hornbeam
American hornbeam or blue beech is a small multi- or single-stemmed tree, 35-50 ft. tall, with a wide-spreading crown that may be uniformly oval or very irregular. Small, shrubby tree with one or more short trunks angled or fluted, long, slender, spreading branches, and broad, rounded crown. The graceful, drooping branches and slender trunk are pale gray, smooth and sinewy with twisting, muscle-like bulges. Shiny, bluish-green, deciduous leaves become scarlet-orange in the fall. The hanging fruit is papery in texture.The word hornbeam, originally given to the European Hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.), is from the words horn (for toughness) and beam (for tree) and refers to the very hard tough wood. The small size of this species limits uses to tool handles and wooden articles. The name beech has been misapplied to this member of the birch family, because of the similar bark. Deer browse the twigs and foliage, and grouse, pheasants, and quail eat the nutlets.